Target of minimalism: the right information, in the right place
and at the right time.
Minimalism as a checklist:
- Reduce passive voice.
- Be concise.
- Write task-oriented procedures.
- Say it once.
Nine principles that provide guidelines for developing
- Help users get started fast.
- Train users on real tasks.
Allow for reading in any order by providing modular units of
- Exploit the user’s prior knowledge and experience.
Coordinate the system they are trying to learn with the
actual training material.
- Support error recognition and recovery.
Use the situation to provide opportunities to learn about
how the system works.
- Be developed using optimal training designs.
Promote reasoning and improvising that increases
comprehension, retention, and active involvement in the
Emphasize experimentation rather than exhaustive
task-oriented step-by-step procedures or system-oriented
descriptions of interface objects.
Encourage exploration and minimize the time-spent reading.
Point out potential problems and suggest ways to avoid them.
Provide more instructionally supportive information where
necessary to assist in user learning.
'It seems like the less a statesman amounts to, the more he loves the flag.'